The Inca site of Pikimachay

Translated to mean “Flea Cave,” Pikimachay is an archaeological site in Peru's Ayacucho Valley. This interesting cave is believed to date back to 12,000 BC though some archaeologists proclaim it to be much older.

A Canadian archaeologist has discovered evidence of long-term human occupation at Pikimachay, especially at the lowest level of the cave. The level above that contains basalt and chert core tools, chopping tools, and projectile points all thought to be used by the early inhabitants of the cave, who seem to have existed in tandem with gigantic animals that roamed the area.

Later inhabitants were hunter-gatherers, and in the later centuries BC, the cave was home to the Chavin civilization, which introduced weaving, religion, and advanced agricultural techniques to the area.